Angra (Brazil)

Map of Angra

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1 PWR unit 600 MW in operation since 1982, constructed by Westinghouse.
1 PWR 1200 MW in operation since 2000, constructed by KWU.

Facilities in Angra

plantreactor typconstruction startoperation startshut down

The International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) is used to classify the safety
significance of the events. No event of INES level 1 has been reported in 2004/2006.
Angra 1 reported to CNEN 5 events of INES level 0 in 2004, 15 in 2005 and 5 in
2006. Angra 2 has reported 6 events of INES level 0 during 2004, 11 in 2005 and 10
in 2006.
(source: 4. CNS report of Brazil (2007))


Furnas Centrais Electricas SA has awarded three sets of contracts to finish installation at Angra-2 of locally supplied equipment in time for a planned start up of the 1,300-MW PWR in 1999, officials from vendor Siemens AG said on March 18.
The Brazilian firm Techint was contracted by Furnas for electrical equipment installation, including instrumentation and control (I&C).
According to unconfirmed reports this week, Brazilian credits totaling about $800-million were made available to complete the work.
The last breakthrough in Angra-2´s lengthy construction occurred in late 1994, when all major components, including pressure vessel, four steam generators, pressurizer, and condenser units, were hoisted into the containment. All but the condenser were imported from Siemens in Germany.
Siemens officials said that, contrary to wire reports in Germany this week, no decision has been made to cancel construction of Angra-3. This project has been on hold since the late 1980s, and financing originally appropriated for it was channeled to complete Angra-2. A Siemens spokesman said that the contract for completing Angra-3 between Furnas and Siemens is still binding, and no decision will be made on Angra-3 until Angra-2 is operating.


After 12 years of construction and financing delays and a standstill since 1988, work at Angra-2 is proceeding with German financing assistance. The total estimated to complete the unit is 1300 million US$. Brazilian firms were invited to bid for the electromechanical work. The fact, that Brazilian firms lack experience at NPP is said to be no problem because they will work under supervision of Siemens. The German vendor is working under a 2,5 year contract worth 25 million US$.
Angra-2 is now scheduled to go critical by June 1999 at a total cost approaching US$ 6000 million (of some US$ 4600 million + 1700 financing cost).
Meanwhile Angra-1 is operating at 50% capacity because of low seasonal demand !!


Brazilian Senate approved a decree reallocating US$ 400 million from german banks initially earmarked for Angra-3 to finish Angra-2. In early 1995 bids for the electro-mechanical part of the plant will be invited. Plant is expected to be ready for operation in 1998.
Completion cost is estimated by utility Furnas at US$ 1300 million, which is about US$ 3580 /kW.
Previous Furnas figures: US$ 4600 million so far + the new spending -> total 5900 million ( i.e. 4530/kW)
These figures were disputed by a federal audit that claimed the cost would be 7300 million or 5600/kW.


Increased radiation levels in primary coolant indicated fuel cladding leaks. Angra-1 was shutdown for inspection. Examination of 98 fuel assemblies revealed that 18 rods had defects: 14 have been in the reactor - almost 5 years. The rods show indications of fratting and scratches on the zircaloy cladding (but the leaking rod had not been detected). Theory is, that the fissures were caused by weakening of the springs that connect the rods to supporting racks; That could have allowed vibration of rods against spacer grids. Fuel supplier Siemens modified the design and new assemblies were made by Industrias Nucleares do Brasil. Restart was allowed for November 1994. After a final emergency plan was signed in October restart was on 18.12.1994.