Salem (USA)

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3 *900 MW PWR units; constructed by Westinghouse; grid connection in 1974 and 1981/82.

Facilities in Salem

plantreactor typconstruction startoperation startshut down
Salem-1PWR19681976
Salem-2PWR19681981
1996-03-20

The New Jersey Public Interest Research Group Citizen Lobby, the Nuclear Information & Resource Service (NIRS), and Public Citizen's Critical Mass Energy Project claimed the two units´ steam generators "are disintegrating, drastically increasing the chances of a radioactive release or, in the worst case, a core meltdown."
Recent steam generator inspections have identified microscopic circumferential cracking in all four of Salem-1´s steam generators. Salem-2 apparently is not as extensively affected by the problem, but PSE&G is examining both unit's steam generators in an effort to better understanding the cracking mechanism .
"The combination of the deteriorating material that fabricates the steam generators, inadequate inspections, and accelerated cracking between inspections adds up to an accident waiting to happen,"said Paul Gunter, director of NIRS` reactor watchdog project. "The cracking and corroding along the nearly 200 miles of Salem's steam generator tubes is the most serious challenge that the utility has faced to date."
The Salem units have a lifetime capacity factors of just 58%. In the past three years alone, Salem has experienced more than 20 shutdowns and has incurred $2-million in fines, they said.
Last year, operating and maintenance costs for Salem, not including fuel, were higher than the price of available replacement power in the region, Freedman said. In addition to steam generator repair or replacement costs, Salem faces the cost of spent fuel storage around 2002, when the plant runs out of space in its spent fuel pool, he noted.

1996-02-28

There will be no quick solution. PSE&G announced late last month that microscopic circumferential cracking in all four of the unit's SG´s forced an "indefinite"extension of Salem-1´s already lengthy outage. The unit was taken off line in May 1995 for unrelated equipment problems, and was most recently expected back in service around July 1.
Preliminary inspection data indicate the unit's four Westinghouse SG´s may be suffering from a new type of degradation.
But if what PSE&G is seeing is a new problem for the utility - and potentially the industry at large - it already has a name: shallow outside diameter (SOD) cracking.
PSE&G's director said all 13.044 of Salem-1´s SG tubes were inspected and 2.779 are "potential repair" candidates. Salem-2 was minimally affected, with only 265 of the 13.066 tubes inspected having some indication of potential problems.

1995-06-07

Shutdown to correct a problem in RHR system. During shutdown the reactor tripped due to loss of RCS flow caused by a breaker failure.
Shutdown was followed by an examination of the work needing to be done at unit-2 to fix all problems.

1995-05-16

Unscheduled outage caused by a tube leak on a LP FW heater which knocked unit back to 95% on May 3 and to 50% on May 5.
Examination of hardware and operational deficiencies led to an extended outage. Unit is expected to restart sometime in 1996.

1994-04-07

Loss of UHS because debris and algae from river Delaware had clogged circ. water intake. Power had been reduced to 10% instead of shutdown to clean the intake. At low power reactor is difficult to control. Operational faults led to a SCRAM with ECCS actuation. RCS overfilled, PRZ flooded, loss of control over the RCS. Blowdown tank overfilled.

1993-07-08

Shutdown when grass and other debris from the Delaware river clogged the intake screen.

1993-06-01

Failure of control rod system during restart after refuelling outage: when a bank of 8 control rods was commanded to move into the core, 1 of the rods moved in the opposite direction (there are 53 control rods in the core).

1991-11-09

A turbine overspeed resulting in severe damage occured due to failure of the emergency trip and overspeed protection solenoid valve. The SOVS failed due to mechanical binding caused by foreign material, sludge, rust and corrosion. Rotor blades went ballistic in the low pressure turbine; One of the flying rotor blades made 300 mm square hole into the 25 mm thick steel turbine cover; pieces flying in several directions. Accident was followed by generator fire and shutdown of the plant. (Salem had problems with the overspeed protection before).

1991-09-20

Both pressurizer PORVs failed open during testing.

1991-02-15

Construction fault: seismic gap seal was not installed between mechanical and electrical penetration area. A steam line break could result in failure of 3 vital MCCS, affecting safety related room coolers, fans and chiller.

1991-02-15

Construction fault: seismic gap seal was not installed between mechanical and electrical penetration area; Asteam line break could result in failure of 3 vital MCCS, affecting safety related room coolers, fans and chiller.

1990-12-20

Leak in service water line afffected various safety related systems, leak was caused by external corrosion.

1990-07-09

Design change error affected the operability of 4 containment isolation valves, condition existed since 1980

1990-06-28

2 MSIVs failed to fully shut following a manual isolation signal. the following investigation revealed a design error: unit-2's valves might not close during certain accident scenarios (e.g. main steam line double-ended pipe rupture)

1990-04-19

Six fast closure turbine building service water valves may not perform their safety function of isolating nonessential loads because of inadequate design.

1990-04-19

6 fast closure turbine building service water valves may not perform their safety function of isolating nonessential loads because of inadequate design

1990-01-17

HPCI system: leak caused by a defect in the root of a weld, this rendered the system inoperable in order to isolate the leak

1989-05-20

Loss of RHR due to inadvertent accumulator nitrogen discharge.