Loviisa (Finland)

Map of Loviisa

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2*440 MW PWR reactors: WWER 440 constructed by AEE operation started in 1977 and 1980;
Since 2008 an environmental impact assessment about the construction of a third reactor at Loviisa was in process.
In spring 2009 the governmental final decisions will be made.
For more information consult: http://www.ecology.at/ecology/lo_3.htm

Facilities in Loviisa

plantreactor typconstruction startoperation startshut down

"Plant officials shut down a nuclear reactor in southern Finland Thursday, after a faulty turbine caused a generator to lose power, but no radiation leak or other damage was reported, officials said.
The 250-megawatt generator, at the Loviisa plant, 90 kilometers (55 miles) east of Helsinki, was shut down but the other 250-megwatt unit was running normally, operations manager Markku Tiitinen said."
(source RSS, from climatesceptics.org)


A contract worker was burned today at Finland's Loviisa when he opened a measuring device on a reactor and radioactive steam from the primary circuit, which had accumulated there, was released. He was taken to the hospital and treated for burns on one of his hands. Plant manager Arvo Vuorenmaa said there should not have been any steam in the device and that the incident is being investigated. The Finnish Radiation & Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) said the radioactivity in the steam was low and posed no danger to other workers.


At Loviisa, Finland's other nuclear station, a level 1 PSA risk for each of the 490-MW VVERs was put at 10-4.

At Loviisa, Helske estimates risk can be improved by 10%-20%. Plans are to modify SG collector covers to reduce the risk of breakoff, which has happened at other VVERs. A variety of procedures will also be improved, so that operators know more clearly what to do, another simple change that Helske says can greatly decrease risk.


Preparations are underway to install two LP preheaters from Greifswald in the Finnish plant during upcoming annual maintenance.
The Plant did not publish the price for the preheaters from the decommissioned German plant, but said it was "not as reasonable" as the vessel and other components Loviisa bought from Poland´s partly built Zarnowiec plant several years ago.
Like the vessel, the preheaters have never been used. but unlike it, the preheaters will be used in actual operation, not just for testing. The preheaters will be installed in the two VVER-440s between the feedwater tank and the condensers.
Hungary´s Paks plant bought Greifswald turbine shafts.
Loviisa expects to choose a supplier shortly for catalytic hydrogen burners, to be installed in 1999.


Low- and medium-level nuclear waste from 21 years of operation at Finland's Loviisa plant has been loaded into the new final repository on the site, and planning for a solidification plant, to complete the first phase of the 80-million markkaa (U.S.$ 16-million) project, is under way.

The 110-meter-deep repository can hold 100,000 cubic meters of containerized waste, in its first cavern and a connecting tunnel. A second phase to hold 50,000 cubic meters of decommissioning waste is planned, but Loviisa's Plant Manager said it will probably be about 20 years before construction begins. That would coincide with the end of the technical lifetimes of the two Loviisa VVER-440s.
Work on the solidification plant will begin in a couple of years. Depending on the type of waste, contamination will either be filtered out in an evaporation system and mixed with concrete, or iron resins will be removed by a filtering system and the remaining material mixed with concrete.
The repository is designed to hold waste only from Loviisa´s lifetime operation, but Helske said it's possible that some waste from nuclear medical programs could be stored there as well. The repository is scheduled to be sealed in 2055.


IVO, which owns the two Loviisa VVER-440s, has begun an environmental impact study on the effects of a new unit at the site. A similar study is being done by Teollisuuden Voima Oy, which owns the two Olkiluoto BWRs. Representatives from both utilities say they want to be ready if the government makes a decision in principle to build a fifth unit.
The agency STUK has taken the possibility of a new plant into account in its recently updated safety guidelines. Core melt accidents are now part of the design basis for new plants and would be required to have a greater diversity for reactor protection systems and electrical supply. Some of these things are fulfilled at the existing plants, but not all of them.


Finland has begun drilling beneath Loviisa NPP to test the bedrock's geologic suitability to host a national spent fuel repository.
Three bore-holes - down to depths of 1 km - are being drilled now.
Year 2000 is set for a site to be selected for the spent fuel repository; year 2003 for construction of an exploratory shaft to start.
A final repository for low- and medium-level radwaste at Loviisa has just begun operation.
The repository is 110 meters down, reached by a 1 km underground road. Finland's other NPP - TVO at Olkiluoto - already has an LLW/MLW final repository, operating since 1992.


Testing of the annealing technique to be used at Finland's Loviisa-1 this summer will begin next month at contractor Skoda Nuclear Machinery's factory in the Czech Republic.
Tests will start in mid-March and run for two weeks.
The Outage is scheduled for 60 days this year, a long outage for a Finnish plant. Between 30 and 40 workers from Skoda will be onsite for the job. The pressure vessel will be drained and isolated to prevent any leakage during annealing.
Only one section of the vessel will actually be annealed, Jokineva said. It is a meter-high band around a circumferential weld in the core area that has copper and phosphorus impurities and which has become embrittled by neutron bombardment. Annealing is expected to restore 90% of the area's original ductile strength.


Operators were forced to take down Finland´s two Loviisa 445-MW VVERs for inspection following problems with main circulation pumps, and unit two is still off line. Operators are also continuing their investigations into a leaking fuel problem at the second unit.
One of six pumps at Loviisa-2 failed October 23, when suction supports in the pump broke. Operators decided to take the unit down to inspect the remaining pumps and to take down Loviisa-1 for inspection as well. Loviisa-2 had been scheduled for a second refueling outage beginning October 27 because fuel leakage had been found in the primary circuit coolant.
Loviisa's maintenance manager, said a similar problem was found with the suction supports of a pump at the first unit, although it didn`t fail.


Skoda Nuclear Machinery has been chosen to anneal the RPV - will do the work with the help of workers from Bohunice; The annealing will take 2,5 weeks; Process is planned for summer 1996: heating of the RPV to 475 °C for 100 hours and cooling down at a rate of 15 to 20 °.
For 1996 it is also planned to replace the main safety valves.
This should allow a power increase between 7 and 9 % in 1998


Skoda Nuclear Machinery has been chosen to anneal the RPV - will do the work with the help of workers from Bohunice; the annealing will take 2,5 weeks; process is planned for summer 1996: heating of the RPV to 475 °C for 100 hours and cooling down at a rate of 15 to 20 °.
For 1996 it is also planned to replace the main safety valves.
This should allow a power increase between 7 and 9 % in 1998


FW pipe break in the turbine hall -> manual scram, few cubic meters of non rad. water collected on the floor. The leak was immediately isolated. Rupture was attributed to erosion-corrosion of the piping material. Similar event occured in unit-1 in 1990.


During outage it was detected that the SG spargers had to be repaired because of erosion -induced wall thinning, including small holes,which is typical of VVER 440 units. similar thinning has been detected in unit-2


Rupture of main FW pipe. investigations showed the wall thickness of the ruptured pipe had been reduced by erosion-corrosion to only about 1 mm. The 325 mm diameter pipe broke on the pressure side of one FW pump. A total of 50 m³ of hot water and steam were discharged into the lower part of the turbine building. -> Damage to electrical cables and smaller diameter pipes. Unit-2 was also shut down for inspections. All 5 FW pipes were replaced in unit-1, and 4 of them in unit-2.


Reactor vessel has embrittled faster than was assumed; embrittlement was first observed in 1980, dummy steel assemblies were substituted for the outer row of fuel in unit 1 (and later in unit 2), Reactor vessel of unit1 is more susceptible to embrittlement than that of its sister unit because its weld material has a higher impurity content. The critical weld is a circumferential weld near the core.