Turkey

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Electricity generation in Turkey

Energy mix

Conventional thermal sources comprise the largest share of Turkey’s electricity supply, contributing 68 percent in 2004. Hydroelectricity generation makes up almost all of the remainder.
(source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/)

Nuclear power

Although Turkey does not currently produce any nuclear energy, the country’s first nuclear power plant is expected to begin electricity generation in 2012.

Plan to construct first NPP

Turkey wanted to build a NPP near Akkuyu in the southern Mersin province on the Mediterranean coast. But on the 25th of July 2000 the government cancelled the plan.

Plans for the Akkuyu plant already started in 1997. The consortia expected to bid included Ansaldo Energia (Italy), Atomic Energy of Canada ltd. with Kvaerner-John Brown (UK) and Gama-Güris-Bayindir (Turkey), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries with Westinghouse and Nuclear Power International (Siemens-Framatome). The project envisaged two options for the construction of the NPP. It had been criticized by local residents, some politicians and environmentalists.
Either one or more units with a capacity ranging from 900 MW to 1.400 MW or between 2.400 MW to 2.800 MW were in discussion. Each power production unit in both options should have had a capacity of 600 MW or more.

History

"The Turkish Akkuyu nuclear power plant project looks to be on again. Delayed in 1999 and cancelled in 2000, the project was originally intended to produce 3,000MW. The first unit was expected to be commissioned in 2006 and the second in December 2007.

The Turkish government now however plans three nuclear plants with a total of 4,500MWe by 2015. The first units will 'probably' be built at Akkuyu because the site already has a license. The Turkish Constitutional Court in March 2008 rejected a request to cancel the plant, leaving the way open for companies to tender.

Akkuyu is located on the Mediterranean coast near Gülner and would be Turkey's first nuclear power plant.

The Akkuyu site has sea communications to bring in heavy machinery. It is close to centres of electricity consumption such as Adana, Konya, Antalya and Mersin. There is also a relatively low population density in the region.
AKKUYU PLANT BIDDING PROCESS

The bidding for the plant was originally announced on December 13th 1996. Bids were received by October 1997. The contract was supposed to have been awarded in October 1999, but the deadline was extended to 31st December 1999 and the project was eventually cancelled in July 2000.

These are the latest stages in a long history. The plant was first mooted in the 1970s, and bids were invited in 1977. However, the project fell through for financial reasons. Originally the second round of bidding was for a turnkey project, but this was changed to a build operate transfer (BOT). Discussions with a Canadian consortium led by AECL fell through partly for financial reasons, and partly because the Chernobyl accident threw uncertainty over the whole project. In the mid 1990s, the project was resumed, creating the present round of bidding.

Two bids for the 3,000MW plant were originally requested. The first (main) option had to have a maximum net output of 1,400(+5%) MW (with one or two units according to the size offered). The second option was to have a maximum net output of 2,800(+5%) MW (two or four units according to the size offered). The plant could be PWR, BWR or PHWR. The minimum unit size was 600MW, and the minimum plant size was 800MW.

The accepted bidder had to meet several criteria:

* Five years' experience with this type of power plant
* Licensed to operate in home country
* Experience of constructing and commissioning at least two nuclear plants previously
* Designation of a reference plant similar to Akkuyu
* Designs must not have had a previous accident

TURNKEY BASIS

The bid was to be for a nuclear power plant on a turnkey basis. This was to comprise a nuclear and turbine island, fuel storage system (with 20 years spent fuel capacity), coolant water intake and outlet structures and GIS Substation of 154kV and 380kV. In addition, the successful bidder had to supply two years fuel (during the warranty period), with an option to supply fuel for a total of seven years. The bidder would supply spare parts and supervise of the plant for the two year warranty period, and (optionally) for three years thereafter. The bidder would train the plant staff and construct the ancillary facilities.

Bids were submitted by three consortia. These were:

* Atomic Energy of Canada, in partnership with Turkish firms Guris and Gama Bayinder
* Westinghouse-Mitsubishi, in partnership with Turkish firms MNG and Enka
* NPI (Fromatone and Siemens), in partnership with Turkish firms Simko, Garanti Koza, STFA and Telefon"

(source: http://www.power-technology.com)

2010: EDF submitted bid to build in Turkey

"Electricite de France SA has submitted a bid to build a nuclear power plant in Turkey, Sabah newspaper reported, without saying how it got the information.

The Energy Ministry in Ankara is evaluating the French bid and is expected to continue to prioritise its negotiations with rival Japanese bidders, Sabah said.

Turkey didn’t support a French attempt to join the Nabucco pipeline project because of French opposition to Turkey’s EU membership, the newspaper said."

(source: http://www.bloomberg.com/news editor responsible for this story: Steve Bryant)

2008: Bidding opened

"Turkey opened bidding for the construction of its first nuclear power plant in March 2008, part of a plan to reduce dependence on gas supplies from Iran and Russia. Turkey's electricity agency said in a written announcement that bids would be accepted until Sept. 24 for the planned plant in the Mediterranean port city of Mersin. The plant is the first of three that the government of Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, left, plans to build by 2015."
(source: New York Times March 25, 2008)

2005: Construction of three NPPs planned

In Jan 2005 the government changed its opinion again. Now Turkey wants to build three plants until 2012. Possible sites will be investigated in the next months. One site could be Konya in central Anatolya.

Sites With Nuclear Facilities

siteplantreactor typconstruction startoperation startshut down
AkkuyuAkkuyuPWR ??