Map of Pakistan

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Energy generation in Pakistan

Nuclear power

Pakistan has two NPPs in operation since 1971 and 2000. Kanupp was built mainly as a source for fissile material to feed Pakistan's atomic weapons programme.
The second plant Chassnupp at Chashma produces twice as much electricity. Chassnupp 2 is currently under construction, operation is planned to start in 2011.

Energy mix

Pakistan had 20.4 gigawatts (GW) of installed electric generating capacity in 2004.

  • Conventional thermal plants using oil, natural gas, and coal account for about 66% of Pakistan’s capacity,
  • with hydroelectricity making up 32% and
  • nuclear 2%.
Energy demand

In recent years, the combination of rising oil consumption and flat oil production in Pakistan has led to rising oil imports from Middle East exporters.

The Pakistani government estimates that by 2010, Pakistan will have to increase its generating capacity by more than 50 percent to meet increasing demand. In 2004, Pakistan generated 80.2 billion kilowatt-hours (Bkwh) of electricity while consuming 74.6 Bkwh. Pakistan's total power generating capacity has increased rapidly in recent years, due largely to foreign investment, leading to a partial alleviation of the power shortages Pakistan often faces in peak seasons. However, much of Pakistan’s rural areas do not have access to electric power and about half the population is not connected to the national grid. Rotating blackouts ("load shedding") are also necessary in some areas. In addition, transmission losses are about 30 percent, due to poor quality infrastructure and a significant amount of power theft.

(source: Energy Information Administration from

Sites With Nuclear Facilities

siteplantreactor typconstruction startoperation startshut down
ChassnuppChassnupp-1PWR 300 MW19922000
Chassnupp-2300 MW20052011
KanuppKanuppCANDU 125 (PHWR)19661971