Czech Republic

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Electricity generation in the Czech Republic

Energy generation

Electricity consumption in the Czech Republic has been growing since 1994 and in 2006, 84.3 billion kWh was generated, 59% from coal, with net exports in 2005 of 13 TWh - 19 TWh to Germany and Austria and import of 11 TWh from Poland. Per capita consumption is about 5500 kWh/yr.
Nuclear power provided 24.6 TWh in 2007, 30% of net total.
(source: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf90.html)

CEZ

Approximately 76% of the Czech electricity production is concentrated in CEZ, a.s., the joint - stock company: nine coal power plants, nuclear power plants (NPP) in Dukovany and Temelin, large hydro power plants and two pumped-storage hydro power plants. The remaining part of the electrical power production is provided by plants owned by eight regional utilities, by independent producers (e.g. Elektrarna Opatovice a.s., Elektrarna Kolin a.s.) or by autoproducers in industry and local heat producers (co-generation).

A daughter company of CEZ owns the backbone high voltage power transmission system (400 kV and 220 kV lines) and dispatching centre. The later is partially independent of CEZ. The electricity distribution is provided by eight electrical power distribution companies (utilities). They have a regional monopoly except for large consumers connected directly to high voltage grid. Utilities can buy electricity from small hydro and wind plants.

Developments in the nuclear sector

2009, Nov, 2: Bids in for new nuclear power in Temelin

"The end of October was the deadline for vendors to submit bids to build two new reactors in the Czech Republic. AtomStoyExport's bid was based on what it calls the MIR-1200 design.

Czech utility CEZ will not officially reveal the identities of bidders until it has reviewed the bids and found them to conform to specifications. This is expected to take a 'few months', but two bidders have annouced their involvement already: US-based Westinghouse, and a consortium of AtomStroyExport and Gidropress of Russia with Skoda of the Czech Republic.

Westinghouse put in a bid based on its AP1000 pressurized water reactor (PWR), planned for the USA and under construction in China. ASE said its bid was based on the MIR-1200 (Modernized International Reactor), a new name for the third generation PWR model under construction at Leningrad Phase II and Novovoronezh Phase II (VVER-1200 V-392M). This is the same design, ASE said, as offered in Finland, Turkey and planned for Kaliningrad.

Some 20 major Czech suppliers are already lined up, ASE said, enabling 70% of the plant components to be sourced locally. Westinghouse also boasted a large local content in the plant, in line with its "buy where we build" policy.

CEZ already operates two 963 MWe PWRs at Temelin as well as four smaller models at Dukovany. All feature Russian-design reactors, with the Temelin units using Westinghouse control systems."

(source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org)

2009, Oct: Austrian legal challenge against Temelin

"An Austrian legal challenge to the operation of the Czech Republic's Temelin nuclear power plant has ended with a ruling that courts have no authority over another member state.

A case had been brought under an Austrian law that states a landowner can prohibit his neighbour from causing nuisance emanating from the latter's land if it exceeds normal local levels and significantly interferes with the usual use of the land. If the nuisance is caused by an officially authorized installation, the landowner is entitled to bring court proceedings for compensation.

In a bid to close the Temelin plant 60 kilometres over the border, the Land Oberösterreich (Province of Upper Austria) made an application under this law to the Landesgericht Linz (Linz Regional Court), claiming that ionizing radiation and the risk of an accident was spoiling use of its agricultural land.

However, the regional court has now been told it has no power over organisations operating in another EU member state, after it sought clarification from the European Court of Justice (ECJ).

In a statement, the ECJ said: "Austria cannot justify the discrimination practised in respect of the official authorization granted in the Czech Republic for the operation of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the ground that it is necessary for protecting life, public health, the environment or property rights."

With reference to the Euratom Treaty the ECJ, "The existing community legislative framework, of which that authorization forms a part, contributes precisely and essentially towards ensuring the protection of those values. Thus that difference in treatment cannot be regarded as either necessary or proportionate for the purposes of protection.

Work started to build the Temelin plant in 1982, with two VVER-1000 type V-320 reactors, designed by Russian organisations and Energoproject and built by VSB with engineering by Skoda Praha. Construction was delayed and when it resumed in the mid 1990s, Westinghouse instrument and control systems were incorporated. The reactors started up in 2000 and 2002, with the upgrading having been financed by CEZ with a loan from the World Bank. In August, CEZ has launched a public tender for a contractor for two new reactors at Temelin."
(source: world-nuclear-news.org)

2009: Proposal for restart of uranium mining

Diamo has submitted a proposal for the restart of uranium mining at historic mine site of Stráž pod Ralskem.
"State-owned company Diamo s.p. has supplied the Czech Ministry of Economics with a proposal to restart uranium mining at Stráž pod Ralskem in North Bohemia, where currently the vast legacy of historic acid in-situ leach uranium mining is being dealt with. Mining methods under consideration include underground mining and ... in-situ leaching. So far, Czech government policy has been to shut down uranium mining (currently only being performed at Rožná) sooner or later." source: www.wise-uranium.org

2007: Construction of new units in Temelin unclear

In January 2007 when the new government was inaugurated, it declared that in its legisalation period it will not decide about the building of new units at Temelin.

2005: Coal before nuclear

In January 2005 CEZ announced to prefer coal power plants before nuclear power.

2004: Stop of search for final repository

In February 2004 the Czech Republic stopped its search for a final repository for radioactive waste for the next five years. More than 100 communes in the Czech Republic issued resolutions against a final repository. Industry minister Urban now wants to discuss a European central waste repository.

2003: New concept for Czech energy policy - two more reactors in Temelin

In September 2003 the Czech Trade and Industry Ministry published a new concept for the Czech energy policy. It included the construction of two more reactors at Temelin and also old plans like the NPP Blahutovice in North Moravia with a capacity of 2000 - 3000 MW. This concept is protested against.

1970s: Construction of WWERs 440 at Temelin and Dukovany

In the 70s, WWERs 440 of Soviet design were built and the Czech industry was involved in the production of NSSS components and partly in primary circuit - e.g. vessel, control rod drive mechanism. The Czech industry became the supplier of these parts in other Eastern European countries (e.g. 20 reactor vessels were made by Skoda). In the 80s, construction of the WWERs 1000 started. In 1993, a resolution was adopted to change the reactor control system (I&C) to meet the state-of-art criteria of unit control.

At Dukovany there are four units in operation (EDU- Elektrarna Dukovany). The units are equipped with WWER 440/V213 reactors of PWR type with the total installed power of 1760 MW(e).
Temelin nuclear power plant consists of two units with WWER 1000/ V320 reactor type with the total installed power of 2000 MW(e). It started trial operation in Dec 2002 (Temelin 1) and in Apr 2003 (Temelin 2) and commercial operation in 2004.

Together Dukovany and Temelin produce about 30% of electricity. Most of this amount is used for exports mainly to Germany.

CEZ financed directly the completion of Temelin nuclear power station, the planned upgrading of Dukovany station and the construction of a spent fuel storage facility. CEZ is using its own resources and credits, without, however, any direct financial participation of the government. The exception is a guarantee of the state for World Bank loan.

1950s: Construction of Bohunice NPP

The nuclear power era in the former CSFR has started off in the 50s because of the lack of oil resources. A heavy water gas-cooled reactor was built and operated in Jaslovske Bohunice (now Slovakia). The further development of nuclear power in the Czech Republic was determined by the influence of former Soviet Union in Eastern Europe.

Sites With Nuclear Facilities

siteplantreactor typconstruction startoperation startshut down
Bratrstvy JachymovBratrstvy JachymovLILW Storage1972
DukovanyDukovanyLILW Storage1995
Dukovany Interim StorageInterim Storage for Spent Fuel2006
Dukovany-1WWER 440 V21319781985
Dukovany-2WWER 440 V21319781986
Dukovany-3WWER 440 V21319781986
Dukovany-4WWER 440 V21319781987
RichardRichardLILW Storage1964
TemelinTemelin Interim StorageInterim Storage for Spent Fuel
Temelin-1PWR WWER 100019842002
Temelin-2PWR WWER 100019852003
Temelin-3PWR0
Temelin-4PWR